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Veterinary Microbiology 160(3-4), 463–467. Molecular detection of murine noroviruses in laboratory and wild mice. 2012

Farkas, T., Fey, B., Keller, G., Martella, V. and Egyed, L.

Notes: Mice RNA samples were converted to cDNA using an oligo-dT primer with the Reverse Transcription System, ethanol precipitated, vacuum dried and transferred to another lab. There they were reconstituted in 20μl of molecular biology grade water.

Detection of caliciviruses in the wild mice samples was attempted using generic calicivirus primers targeting sequences encoding conserved amino acid motifs in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region of ORF1. Two microliters of cDNA was used in 25μl PCR reactions using the GoTaq® Green Master Mix. Laboratory mouse RNA samples were tested only with MNV-specific primers in the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System using 2μl RNA as template.

PCR products were cloned into pGEM-T® Vector and sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primers on an ABI PRISM® 3730 DNA Analyzer. (4330)

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Nucl. Acids Res. Dec 8, Epub ahead of print. Protein-mediated protection as the predominant mechanism for defining processed mRNA termini in land plant chloroplasts. 2011

Zhelyazkhova, P., Hammani, K., Rojas, M., Voelker, R., Vargas-Suárez, M., Börner, T., and Barkan, A.

Notes: Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are helical repeat proteins that bind specific RNA segments and protect the adjacent RNA by serving as a barrier to exoribonucleases. This study showed that protection by PPR or PPR-like proteins is the predominant mechanism for defining the positions of processed 5′ and intercistronic mRNA termini in land plant chloroplasts. The authors used RNasin® Ribonuclease Inhibitor in binding reactions between labeled RNA and PPR proteins prior to Gel mobility shift assays. They also used the pGEM®-T Vector to clone various 3´ RNA terminal sequences amplified by RT-PCR. (4185)

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Plant Physiol. 150, 1356–1367. Sucrose control of translation mediated by an upstream open reading frame-encoded peptide. 2009

Rahmani, F., Hummel, M., Schuurmans, J., Wiese-Klinkenberg, A., Smeekens, S. and Hanson, J.

Notes: The authors were wanted to study the upstream open reading frame 2 (uORF2) of the 5’ leader of bZIP11 mRNA, which has a role in sucrose regulation. The whole 5’ leader fragment of bZIP11 was subcloned into the pALTER® Vector and amino acid substitutions were introduced using the Altered Sites® II in vitro Mutagenesis System. The pGEM®-T Easy Vector was used to clone two PCR fragments that were then subcloned using restriction enzymes to create a fusion of uORF2 to a different 5’ leader. Arabidopsis seedlings were transformed via particle bombardment. 20mg of plant tissue was ground in Passive Lysis Buffer, centrifuged, and 20µl of the supernatant was assessed for reporter gene expression using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. (4023)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 2441–2446. Systems-level analysis of cell-specific AQP2 gene expression in renal collecting duct. 2009

Yu, M.J., Miller, R.L., Uawithya, P., Rinschen, M.M., Khositseth, S., Braucht, D.W., Chou, C.L., Pisitkun, T., Nelson, R.D. and Knepper, M.A.

Notes: The authors used a systems biology approach to examine the transcriptional regulation of water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). A 1,511bp fragment from the 5´-flanking region of the mouse AQP2 gene was amplified from mouse tail DNA and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. This construct was then digested with two restriction enzymes and cloned into a double-digested pGL3-Basic Vector. Full length Elf3, Elf5 and Ehf cDNA, members of the ETS family of transcriptional regulators, were amplified, sequenced and ligated into the pTARGET™ Mammalian Expression Vector. LLCPK1 cells were cotransfected with AQP2-pGL3 reporter and one of the pTARGET™ constructs. Reporter activity was measured using 20µl of cell lysate in a luciferase assay. (4033)

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J. Virol. doi:10.1128/JVI.01509-08, Epub (ahead of print). Classical swine fever virus can remain virulent after specific elimination of the interferon regulatory factor 3 degrading function of Npro. 2008

Ruggli, N., Summerfield, A., Fiebach, A.R., Guzylack-Piriou, L., Bauhofer, O., Lamm, C.G., Waltersperger, S., Matsuno, K., Liu, L., Gerber, M., Choi, K.H., Hofmann, M.A., Sakoda, Y., Tratschin, J.D.

Notes: These authors studied the effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the Npro gene of swine fever virus. The Npro gene encodes a non-strucutral protein that prevents interferon production by promoting proteasomal degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Npro also has an autoprotease function. Deletion of the entire Npro region attenuates virulence. In this study, the authors showed that degradation of IRF3 and autoprotease activity are independent, structurally overlapping functions. In particular, they investigated the effect of specific amino acid substitutions that eliminated IRF3 interaction and degradation, but did not affect autoprotease activity. They showed that removal of IRF3 degradation activity of Npro had only minimal effect on virulence in swine. The pGEM-T Vector was used to clone the amplified Npro gene, and the CheckMate™ Flexi Vector Mammalian Two-Hybrid System was used for protein interaction studies. (3944)

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Microbiology 154, 139–47. Involvement of BmoR and BmoG in n-alkane metabolism in 'Pseudomonas butanovora'. 2008

Kurth, E.G., Doughty, D.M., Bottomley, P.J., Arp, D.J. and Sayavedra-Soto, L.A.

Notes: The authors characterized five open-reading frames flanking the alcohol-inducible alkane monooxygenase (BMO) structural gene of Pseudomonas butanovora. Strains with mutated bmoR, which encodes a putative transcriptional regulator, or bmoG, which encodes a putative chaperonin, were created by gene inactivation. The bmoR gene was amplified and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector for disruption with a kanamycin cassette. The two termini of the bmoG gene were amplified separately, ligated to the kanamycin cassette and cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. Plasmids encoding the disrupted genes were transformed into Pseudomonas butanovora by electroporation. (3893)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 10637–10642. Commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli use a common pilus adherence factor for epithelial cell colonization. 2007

Rendón, M.A., Saldaña, Z., Erdem, A.L., Monteiro-Neto, V., Vázquez, A., Kaper, J.B., Puente, J.L. and Girón, J.A.

Notes: The authors identified an adherence factor of enterohemorrhagic E. coli that is involved in colonization of cultured epithelial cells. This factor, named E. coli common pilus (ECP), is encoded by the ecpA gene, which is present 96% of E. coli strains tested, as determined by PCR. The remaining 4% of the strains were found to be deficient in the ECP operon, as determined by multiplex PCR amplification of ecpR, ecpA, epcB and ecpC sequences. PCR were performed using GoTaq® Green Master Mix. An ecpA deletion mutant exhibited impaired adherence compared to the wildtype E. coli strain. Complementation of the mutant strain with the plasmid pMR13, the pGEM®-T Vector cotaining the ecpA gene, restored the strain's ability to adhere to epithelial cells. (3719)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 35, 1245-1256. Dual role of DNA methylation inside and outside of CTCF-binding regions in the transcriptional regulation of the telomerase hTERT gene 2007

Renaud, S., Loukinov, D., Abdullaev, Z., Guilleret, I., Bosman, F.T., Lobanenkov, V. and Benhattar, J.

Notes: Telomeres shorten by 50–100 bases with each cell division, making the telomere a "mitotic counter" that can limit cellular lifespan. Telomerase is a two-component protein consisting of a reverse transcriptase (hTERT) bound to its own RNA template that can act to maintain telomere length in dividing cells. Telomerase is highly active in dividing cells such as germ cells, stem cells and many cancers. This paper investigated the role of methylation of the hTERT promoter and the transcription factor CTCF in regulation of telomerase activity. LacZ reporter plasmids driven by the hTERT minimal promoter were transiently transfected into HeLa cells, and reporter assays were performed on lysate generated using Passive Lysis Buffer. The hTERT minimal promoter did not show activity if all of the CpG sites were methylated. The promoter and first exon of hTERT were amplified using PCR Master Mix from sodium bisulfite-treated genomic DNA isolated from telomerase-positive cell lines and tissues. The resulting fragments were cloned using the pGEM®-T Vector System II. For the methylation cassette assay, methylated and unmethylated fragments were cloned into a methylated or unmethylated vector using the LigaFast™ Rapid DNA Ligation System. The authors conclude that methylation plays a dual role in regulating hTERT expression. CTCF will bind to the first exon of hTERT when the hTERT CpG island is not methylated, resulting in downregulation of hTERT expression. Although CTCF cannot bind the hTERT promoter when the DNA is completely methylated, the methylation itself completely represses transcription. In situations where there is partial methylation of the promoter, such as in tumor cells, CTCF cannot bind to the promoter, but the partial methylation is not enough to repress transcription, and hTERT is expressed. (3641)

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Hum. Mol. Genet. 15, 999–1013. An exon skipping-associated nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene uncovers a complex interplay between multiple antagonistic splicing elements. 2006

Disset, A., Bourgeois, C.F., Benmalek, N., Claustres, M., Stevenin, J. and Tuffery-Giraud, S.

Notes: To construct dystrophin minigenes, genomic DNA containing a mutation in dystrophin was amplified for exons 30, 31 and 32. The three PCR fragments were combined and amplified into one product. This overlap-extension PCR generated two minigenes which were then cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector and sequenced. After EcoR I digestion, the minigenes were ligated into the pSI Mammalian Expression Vector and transiently transfected into C2C12 cells for expression analysis. (3499)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, 6215-6224. Chromosomal integration of LTR-flanked DNA in yeast expressing HIV-1 integrase: down regulation by RAD51 2006

Desfarages, S., San Filippo, J., Fournier, M. Calmels, C., Caumont-Sarcos, A., Litvak, S., Sung, P., Parissi, V.

Notes: In the process of demonstrating the role of IN in HIV-1 integration in yeast, the authors purified all DNA vectors and PCR products with the Wizard® Plus SV Miniprep System and Wizard® SV Gel System. PCR products were generated using Taq DNA Polymerase. The pGEM®-T Vector was used to clone amplification products. Sequencing was performed using BamHI, religated with T4 DNA Ligase. (3704)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, e7. Four-base codon mediated mRNA display to construct peptide libraries that contain multiple nonnatural amino acids. 2006

Muranaka, N., Hohsaka, T. and Sisido, M.

Notes: The authors devised an mRNA display system to generate a peptide library with multiple nonnatural amino acids incorporated into the proteins, an important feature of peptide libraries for successful drug discovery. An mRNA with 3 four-base codons at a random position was used as a template in an in vitro translation system in the presence of charged tRNAs carrying four-base codons. In vitro translations were performed using 3.6 × 1013 molecules of mRNA template and the E. coli S30 Extract System. The mRNA template contained a T7 tag sequence, so the translation products could be detected using an anti-T7 tag antibody and the Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), AP Conjugate. The mRNA-displayed peptides also incorporated a polyhistidine tag so that they could be purified using the MagneHis™ Ni-Particles. After selecting for the desired protein characteristic, the mRNA portion of the mRNA-displayed peptides was reverse transcribed and quantitated by real-time PCR. PCR products were cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector prior to sequencing. (3651)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, e67. GREM, a technique for genome-wide isolation and quantitative analysis of promoter active repeats. 2006

Buzdin, A., Kovalskaya-Alexandrova, E., Gogvadze, E. and Sverdlov, E.

Notes: The authors selected repetitive elements in the human genome using a novel technique: GREM. T4 DNA Ligase was used to ligate adapters to digested genomic DNA prior to PCR, and exonuclease III was used to generate the necessary 5´ termini. After the final amplification, the PCR products were cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector, then sequenced. (3550)

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Clin. Can. Res. 12, 2032-37. Reversal of the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer CaSki cells through adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of HPV16 E7 antisense RNA. 2006

Wu, S., Wang, S., Wang, W., Xi, L., Tian, X., Chen, G., Wu, Y., Zhou, J., Xu, G., Lu, Y. and Ma, D.

Notes: The coding sequence of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV16) E7 oncogene was isolated following total RNA purification from CaSki cells, RT-PCR and PCR and then cloning into the pGEM®-T Easy vector. In order to test the effectiveness of antisense HPV16 E7 therapy against cervical cancer, an adeno-associated virus vector was used to transfer the antisense construct of the E7 coding sequence into CaSki cervical cancer cells. (3395)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 17, 1331-1343. The Arabidopsis thaliana PARTING DANCERS gene encoding a novel protein is required for normal meiotic homologous recombination. 2006

Wijeratne, A.J., Chen, C., Zhang, W., Timofejeva, L. and Ma, H.

Notes: The authors identify PARTING DANCERS as a gene involved in male meiosis in Arabidopsis using a microarray generated from meiotic-stage anthers. To confirm the sequence obtained by microarray analysis, RT-PCR was performed and the resulting cDNA was cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector and sequenced. To generate probes for in situ hybridization, fragments of ptd were amplified, cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector, then labeled with digoxygenin through in vitro transcription. (3468)

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Nucl. Acids Res. 34, 584-592. Unbiased in vitro selection reveals the unique character of the self-cleaving antigenomic HDV RNA sequence. 2006

Nehdi, A. and Perreault, J.P.

Notes: To characterize sequence variability of the catalytic center of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme, which includes a self-cleaving motif, the authors developed an in vitro selection process that allowed them to select self-cleaving sequence variants from a pool of HDV ribozymes. The selection process started with a library of DNA oligonucleotides corresponding to the HDV ribozyme sequence that had been randomized at a 25-nucleotide sequence. The oligos contained known sequences at the 5´ and 3´ ends to allow amplification. The library was amplified by PCR, then transcribed. The resulting RNA was separated by polyacylamide gel electrophoresis, and the self-cleaved transcripts were excised, purified and reverse transcribed. A 3´ extension using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase added a known sequence to the 3´ end so that the resulting cDNA could by amplified by PCR. Thus another cycle of selection could begin. The PCR products generated at the start of the process and at each cycle were cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. (3467)

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J. Biol. Chem. 280, 19977-19985. A novel Myc-target gene, mimitin, that is involved in cell proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. 2005

Tsuneoka, M., Teye, K., Arima, N., Soejima, M., Otera, H., Ohashi, K., Koga, Y., Fujita, H., Shirouzu, K., Kimura, H. and Koda, Y.

Notes: The authors used 5´ and 3´RACE to amplify the gene mimitin, and the resulting cDNA was cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. A genomic DNA fragment containing the mimitin promoter sequence was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. The promoter was then cloned into the pGL3-Basic Vector. The activity of the wildtype and mutated promoters was determined using a luciferase assay. The pRL CMV Vector was used to normalize for differences in transfection efficiency. (3466)

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J. Biol. Chem. 280, 28215-28220. Determination of the functionality of common APOA5 polymorphisms. 2005

Talmud, P.J., Palmen, J., Putt, W., Lins, L., and Humphries, S.E.

Notes: The authors investigated common variants of the APOA5 gene that have been associated with differences in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. PCR fragments containing either the –1131T --> C promoter variant or containing both the –1131T --> C and –3G --> A promoter variants were cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector System. The fragments were subsequently cloned into the pGL3 Basic Vector and transiently transfected into Huh7 and HepG2 cells along with the luciferase control vector, pRL-TK. The cells were lysed 48 hours after transfection and Luciferase activity was measured with the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. The function of the 1891T --> C variant in the 3´ UTR was tested the same way; with the exception that site-directed mutagenesis was performed to introduce the T --> C at position 1891 before the fragment was cloned into the pGL3 Basic Vector. The functionality of the Kozak sequence –3A --> G variant was determined by cloning cDNAs into the pGEM®-7Zf Vector. Transcription/translation experiments were performed using the TNT® Quick Coupled Transcription/Translation System and the proteins were labeled using the FluorTect™ GreenLys System. In addition, a primer extension inhibition assay was performed using capped mRNAs generated with the Riboprobe® System –T7 and the Ribo m7G Cap Analog. Ribosome binding reactions were performed using the Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate System, Nuclease Treated. (3460)

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Infect. Immun. 73, 2611-2620. Molecular cloning and characterization of three beta-defensins from canine testes. 2005

Sang, Y., Ortega, M.T., Blecha, F., Prakash, O. and Melgarejo, T.

Notes: The investigators cloned three β-defensins, which are antimicrobial peptides, from canine testes. A canine expressed sequence tag (EST) was identified based on similarity to human β-defensins. Full-length cDNAs were obtained using 5´- and 3´RACE, then amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM®-T Easy Vector. cDNA sequences were confirmed using the SP6 and T7 Promoter Primers. The tissue-specific expression of canine β-defensins (cBDs) was characterized using the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System to amplify β-defensin RNA from a variety of tissues. RNA was treated with RQ1 RNase-Free DNase prior to RT-PCR. The identity of the RT-PCR products was confirmed by electrophoresis, transfer to nylon membranes and hybridization to probes derived from sequence-confirmed β-defensin clones; the probes were synthesized using the Prime-a-Gene® Labeling System. To localize expression of the three β-defensin isoforms in canine testes, in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed. The 3´-RACE products were cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector, which was then linearized and treated with exonuclease III (Erase-a-Base® System) to delete an approximately 80-bp region shared by the three cBD isoforms. The resulting product was used to synthesize sense and antisense ISH probes. (3453)

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RNA 10, 277–286. Localization of a promoter in the putative internal ribosome entry site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TIF4631 gene. 2004

Verge´, V., VonLanthenm, M., Masson, J.M., Trachsel, H., and Altmann, M.

Notes: Researchers cloned the Photinus and Renilla luciferase ORFs into the pSP64 Poly(A) Vector to create a dual-reporter vector named SP6P. A similar vector, SP6R.4G(-508/-3).P, was created in which a 5´ untranslated region from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TIF4631 gene was cloned between the two reporter genes. These two vectors were used to transform yeast strains. The resultant transformants were lysed using Passive Lysis Buffer and a modified lysis procedure.   Lysates were analyzed for luciferase activities using the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System and a TD20/20 luminometer. The researchers also cloned and sequenced the 5´  untranslated region of TIF4631 by using a RACE-PCR technique followed by cloning the PCR amplimers into the pGEM®-T Vector. (2845)

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J. Cell Biol. 166, 61–71. Mutations in sticky lead to defective organization of the contractile ring during cytokinesis and are enhanced by Rho and suppressed by Rac. 2004

D’Avino, P.P., Savoian, M.S., and Glover, D.M.

Notes: The entire sti gene (~7kb) of Drosophila was PCR cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. The cloned sequences were then sequenced and analyzed for mutations. The researchers also used the T7 RiboMAX™ Large Scale RNA Production System to create dsRNAs from PCR-amplified regions of the sti and GFP coding regions. TransFast™ Transfection Reagent was used to transfect 2 x 106 Schneider S2 cells with 10 μg of dsRNA in a 35mm Petri dish. The cells were fixed after transfection and examined for multinucleate cells, or immunocytochemically stained for actin and anillin. (3259)

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Biochimie 86, 849-856. Targeted disruption of the perxisomal thiolase B gene in mouse: A new model to study disorders related to peroxisomal lipid metabolism. 2004

Chevillard, G., Clémencet, M.C., Latruffe, N., and Nicolas-Francès, V.

Notes: GoTaq® DNA Polymerase was used in a multiplexed genotyping reaction with three primers to differentiate wild-type, heterozygous, and mutant transgenic mouse alleles simultaneously. The wild-type target was 670bp and the mutant or knockout target was 1,030bp. Various other amplimers (1.4kb, 471bp, & 311bp) were subcloned with the aid of the pGEM®-T Easy Vector System. (3360)

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J. Biol. Chem. 279, 39094-39104. The atomic resolution crystal structure of atratoxin determined by single wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing. 2004

Lou, X., Liu, Q., Tu, X., Wang, J., Teng, M., Niu, L., Schuller, D.J., Huang, Q. and Hao, Q.

Notes: In this study, the SV Total RNA Isolation System was used to isolate total RNA from venom sacs from Naja Atra (asian cobra). The Access RT-PCR System was used to reverse transcribe atratoxin and atratoxin-b cDNA from the isolated RNA. The amplified cDNAs were then cloned into the pGEM®-T vector. (3126)

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Development 131, 3897-3906. The TOR pathway interacts with the insulin signaling pathway to regulate C. elegans larval development, metabolism and life span 2004

Jia, K., Chen, D. and Riddle, D.L.

Notes: The authors of this study investigated the function of the daf-15 gene in C. elegans. The daf-15 gene encodes the C. elegans ortholog of raptor, a protein involved in the TOR signaling pathway. In C. elegans, daf-15 transcription is regulated by DAF-16, a FOXO transcription factor which is itself regulated by the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. This work links regulation of the TOR pathway, which controls cell growth, to the insulin/IGF-1 pathway, known to affect lifespan, development and metabolism. Three candidate daf-15 genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM®-T Vector. The Riboprobe® SP6/T7 transcription system was used to transcribe RNA from the candidate clones. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to compare daf-15 mRNA levels in daf-2 and daf-16; daf-2 mutant animals. The mRNA was purified from total worm RNA using the PolyATtract® mRNA Isolation System. (3633)

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Infect. Immun. 71, 3971-3978. Development of DNA vaccines against hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a murine model. 2003

Capozzo, A.V.E., Creydt, V.P., Dran, G., Fernández, G., Gómez, S., Bentancor, L.V., Rubel, C., Ibarra, C., Isturiz, M. and Palermo, M.S.

Notes: Researchers used the pGEM®-T Vector System to clone the entire 1.4kb Shiga toxin type 2 gene (Stx2) from E. coli O157-H7 C600 (933W). The resultant construct, named pGEMTStx2, was used as a template in PCR to amplify each region of the gene corresponding to Shiga toxin type 2 subunits A and B. Each PCR product was digested with BamHI and EcoR I before ligation into pCDNA 3.1+ (Invitrogen) to create pStx2ΔA and pStx2B. Mice were then immunized with either one or both of these constructs and another construct expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Expression of each subunit in mouse tissue was verified by RT-PCR with specific primers and the AccessQuick™ RT-PCR System. (2701)

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Clin. Can. Res. 9, 1057-1062. Genomic instability and tumor-specific alterations in oral squamous cell carcinomas assessed by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR 2003

Viswanathan, M., Sangiliyandi, G., Vinod, S.S., Mohanprasad, B.K.C., Shanmugam, G.

Notes: The authors used ISSR PCR to quantitate genomic instability using matched tumor (OSCC) and normal oral squamous cell samples. The inter-repeat region bands of similar molecular size that were altered in more than one case of OSCC were reamplified, gel purified and cloned into the pGEM T Vector for sequencing. (2635)

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